WE ARE NOT A HINDU, NOT A MUSLIM, NOT A CHRISTIAN………
WE ARE ALL
STATES AND CAPITAL
Jammu and Kashmir
Summer Capital: Jammu
Winter Capital: Srinagar
Andaman & Nicobar
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
Presidents of India
(Jan. 26, 1950 to May 13, 1962)
(May 13, 1962 to May 13, 1967)
(May 13, 1967 to May 3, 1969)
(May 3, 1969 to July 20, 1969)(acting)
Justice Mohammed Hidayatullah
(July 20, 1969 to August 24, 1969)(acting)
(August 24, 1969 to August 24, 1974)
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
(August 24, 1974 to Feb. 11, 1977)
(Feb. 12, 1977 to July 25, 1977)(acting)
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
(July 25, 1977 to July 25, 1982)
Giani Zail Singh
(July 25, 1982 to July 25, 1987)
(July 25, 1987 to July 25, 1992)
Dr.Shanker Dayal Sharma
(July 25, 1992 to July 25, 1997)
K. R. Narayanan
(July 25, 1997 – July 25, 2002)
A P J Abdul Kalam
July 25, 2002 – July 25, 2007
July 25, 2007 – till datePrime Ministers of India
Aug. 15, 1947 – May 27, 1964
Gulzari Lal Nanda
May 27, 1964 – June 9, 1964 (Interim)
January 11 – 24, 1966(Interim)
Lal Bahadur Shastri
June 9, 1964 – January 11, 1966
Jan. 24, 1966 to March 24, 1977
Jan. 14, 1980 to Oct. 31,1984
March 24, 1977 to July 28, 1979
July 28, 1979 – Jan. 14, 1980
Oct. 31,1984 to Dec. 1,1989
V. P. Singh
Dec. 2,1989 – Nov. 10, 1990
Nov. 10,1990 – June 21, 1991
P. V. Narasimha Rao
June 21, 1991 to May 10, 1996
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
May 16 to June 1, 1996
H. D. Deve Gowda
June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997
I. K. Gujral
April 21, 1997 – Nov. 28. 1997.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
March 19, 1998 – May 22, 2004
Dr. Manmohan Singh
May 22, 2004 – till date
National Animal of India
Tiger is scientifically known as Panthera tigris. It is a member of the Felidae family and the largest of the four ‘big cats’ of the Panthera genus. On an average, a tiger is about 13 feet in length and 150 kilograms in weight. The pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlay near-white to reddish-orange fur is the distinct recognition of a tiger. By nature, the tiger is a keen predator and carnivore. The Panthera tigris is a native of the eastern and southern Asia. Known as Lord of Jungles due to its grace, agility, power and endurance, Tiger is also the national animal of India.
Choice of Tiger as National Animal
Tiger was chosen as the National animal of India due to its grace, strength, agility and enormous power. As the tiger is also considered as the king of Jungle, it was an obvious choice for the National Animal category. Since time immemorial, the tiger has been considered as a Royal Animal. Often, The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation.
Declining Population of Tiger
There is a steep fall in the population of tigers in the world. Due to illegal smuggling of Tiger Skin and other body parts, there are very few tigers left in the world today. According to the World Census of Tigers, there are only 5000 -7000 tigers in the world today. Out of which, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar claim to have a population of 3000 to 4500 and India alone claims to have a population of 2500 to 3750. In India, out of the eight known races of the Panthera Tigris species, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region.
Project Tiger in India
Due to the extreme threat of extinction of the tiger species from the country, the Indian Government launched Project Tiger in 1973. Project tiger was focused to preserve the remaining tiger population in the country and increase the breeding of the species so that new population could be added to the existing one. Under this Project, 23 tiger reserves were established throughout the country, covering an area of 33,406 sq. km for providing safe and comfortable shelter to the tigers in the natural environment. By 1993, there was much improvement in the tiger population in the country. However despite the increase in population, the population of tigers in the country is still not satisfactory compared to the effort and money put in the project. This is due to the illegal poaching of the tigers and negligence of authorities towards the alarming situation of the tiger population in the country.
National Anthem of India
National anthem can be described as a patriotic musical composition of a country, which reminds and praises the history, traditions and struggles of its people. At the same time, it has to be recognized as the official national song, either by the nation’s government or by convention through use by the people. The national anthem of India is ‘Jana-gana-mana’, composed originally in Bengali, by Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India, in its Hindi version, by the Constituent Assembly, on 24th January 1950.
‘Jana-gana-mana’ was first sung on 27th December 1911, long before Indian gained independence, at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. As for the playing time of the full version of the national anthem, it will take up approximately 52 seconds. A short version, consisting of first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds), is also played on certain occasions.
National Anthem In Hindi
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
Translation In English
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India’s destiny.
The name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
Mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganga
And is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The salvation of all people is in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.
The Story Behind Translation
Jana Gana Mana was translated, from Sanskrit to English, by Rabindranath Tagore and the music on this English Translation was set in Madanapalle, a small town in Andhra Pradesh. As to the story behind this translation, in 1918 Tagore was invited, by controversial Irish poet James H. Cousins, to spend a few days at the Besant Theosophical College (BTC). James was serving as the principal of the college, at that time.
On February 28, while attending a gathering of students at BTC, Rabindranath sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali. Suddenly, he thought of translating the song in English. A few days later, in Madanapalle, Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song. Cousins’ wife, Margaret, who was an expert in Western music, set down the music for this English version. The framed original English translation is still displayed in the library of Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle.
National Bird of India
The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty, grace, pride and mysticism, it is a multihued, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. Much in contrast to the natural phenomenon, the male specie of the bird is much more strikingly stunning than its female counterpart. The male bird, peacock, flaunts a gleaming blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers. It is capable of extending its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display.
The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight. On the other hand, the female bird, peahen, slightly smaller than its male counterpart. Brownish in color, the female bird also lacks the train visible in the male specie. Peacock is predominantly found in the Indian sub-continent, ranging from the south to east of the Indus river. Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula also is home to this impeccable bird. The bird lives in jungle lands near water and is thus, chiefly found in the wilds in India (sometimes, domesticated in villages as well).
Peacock is illustrated in pictures accompanying Indian Gods and Goddesses. The sacred bird of the India, the bird was once bred for food, but now hunting of peacocks is banned in India. It is protected not only by a religious sentiment, but also by parliamentary statute. Peacocks have been given full protection under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Apart from India, it is also involved to the cultures prevalent in Far East, Ancient Persia, Greek and Christian. While the figure of peacock features in various Islamic religious buildings, the bird is symbolic to ‘Resurrection of Christ’ in Christianity.
Coming back to Hinduism, peacock is portrayed as the image of the God of thunder, rains and war, Indra. People believe that, when a peacock extends its tail erect like fan for an enchanting and mesmerizing demonstration, it indicates that rainfall is on the cards. Though this might sound strange, but the fact is somewhat true. On seeing the dark clouds, peacock outspreads its tail and starts dancing in rhythmic fashion. Its dance movement has been incorporated in most of the Indian folklore, including Bharatha Natyam. In southern part of India, peacock is considered as a ‘vahana’ or vehilce of lord Muruga.
Features Of Peacock
The male specie, peacock, is characterized with a 2.12 m (7.3 ft) length, in full breeding plumage, and weighs about 5 kg (11 lbs). The female bird – peahen, on the other hand, is about 86 cm (34 in) long and weighs about 3.4 kg (7.4 lbs). Adoring the glistening blue-green plumage, the Indian peacock has an extension of feathers on its back. Each feather is exemplified with an eye at its end. The Indian peahen is a mixture of dull green, grey and iridescent blue, with the greenish-grey color outweighing. The bird is mostly found in the dry semi-desert grasslands, scrub and deciduous forests and feeds on mainly seeds, but some also eat insects, fruits and reptiles.
National Calendar of India
The Saka calendar used as the official civil calendar in the country is the National Calendar of India. It is used in India besides the Gregorian calendar by the Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, calendars and communication document issued by control of Government of India. The Saka calendar, often referred as the Hindu calendar is originally named as Saka Samvat. It is also used for the calculation days of religious significance in the Hindu Religion in the country. You will always find a Saka calendar alongside a Gregorian Calender in an Indian Home.
Formation of Saka Calendar
In the Indian civil calendar, the initial period is the Saka Era. The Calendar is said to have begun with King Salivahana’s accession to the throne. It is used as a reference for most astronomical works in Sanskrit literature written after 500 AD. The calculation of ‘thitis’ i.e. dates in this Calendar are done in accordance with the actual positions of Sun and Moon in the universe. In the Saka calendar, the year 2009 AD is 1932.
Adoption of Saka Calendar as National Calendar
The current national calendar of India i.e. the Saka Calendar was adopted as the National Calendar in 1957 by the Calendar Reform Committee which also made efforts to coincide the astronomical data and harmonize the usage of this calendar after rectification of some local errors. It came into usage from March 22, 1957 according to the Gregorian calendar which was actually Saka Era, Chaitra 1, 1879 according to the Saka Samvat. It was adopted as the National calendar in order to synchronize the usage of 30 different kinds of Calendar used in India at that time.
An Overview of the Saka Calendar
Saka Calendar is said to have begun from the vernal equinox of A.D. 79. The usage of the Calendar began from aka Era 1879, Chaitra 1, which corresponds to A.D. 1957 March 22. The Saka Calendar is similar to the Gregorian calendar on the terms that even the Saka calendar has a normal year of 365 days and a leap year has 366 days. In a leap year, an intercalary day is added to the end of Chaitra month of the year. There are 12 months in Saka Calendar which are named as Vaisakha ,Jyestha ,Asadha ,Sravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina , Kartika Margasirsa , Pausa , Magh, Phalgura ,Chaitra.
National Flag of India
The National Flag of India, also called the ‘Tiranga’, was adopted during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly of the country. The meeting was held on the 22nd July 1947, twenty-four days prior to India’s independence from the British (which took place on 15th August 1947). Based on the flag of the Indian National Congress, which was designed by Pingali Venkayya, the flag is also the war flag Indian Army, hoisted daily on military installations. The heraldic description of Indian National Flag is Party per fess Saffron and Vert on a fess Argent a “Chakra” Azure.
National Flag of India has been designed in such a way that it forms a horizontal tricolor, with the colors – saffron, white and green, in equal proportions. The deep saffron (kesari) color is at the top; white is in the middle, while dark green forms the bottom. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3. In the centre of the white band of the flag is a navy blue wheel, comprising of 24 spokes, which represents the Ashoka Chakra, seen on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The diameter of the chakra approximates to three-fourth of the width of the white band of the flag.
The preamble of the flag code of India describes the significance of the colors and the chakra in the ‘Tiranga’. It was amply described by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in the Constituent Assembly that unanimously adopted the National Flag. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan explained:
“Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation of disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to soil, our relation to the plant life here on which all other life depends. The Ashoka Wheel in the center of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principles of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change..”
After 52 years, the citizens of India are free to fly the Indian National Flag over their homes, offices and factories on any day. On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed, giving Indians the freedom to proudly display the national flag any where and any time. However, there are still some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26th January 2002 legislation, which should be followed by the citizens. These rules and regulation includes certain dos and don’ts, which have been explained below.
- The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.
- A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise, consistent with the dignity and honor of the National Flag.
- Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.
- The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather.
- The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
- No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems, can be placed on or above the flag. The tricolor cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting.
National Flower of India
Lotus, botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India. The Lotus plant is basically an aquatic plant with wide floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers which grow only in shallow waters. The Lotus plant has floating leaves and flowers. It has long aerated stems.. The lotus flowers are extremely beautiful with an overlapping proportional motif of petals. It is considered to be a sacred flower and occupies unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India. This flower has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
Choice of Lotus As National Flower
The Lotus Flower symbolizes divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge and enlightenment. It is also regarded as a symbol of triumph as it can survive to regerminate for thousands of years. Lotus represents long life, honor, and good fortune. Untouched by the impurity despite growing in mud, the flower is also meant to symbolize the purity of heart and mind. It holds additional significance for Hindus, as it is regarded as the symbol of many Gods and Goddesses and is often used in religious practices. It was because of these noble meanings and cultural significance that made the founding
fathers of modern India enshrine the lotus in the Constitution as the National Flower.
Cultural Significance of Lotus
From ancient times the lotus has been considered to be a sacred symbol in Asian traditions representing sexual purity. It is also regarded as the symbol of purity and divinity by several religions. Hindus relate it to their Almighty, Vishnu, Brahma, Lakshmi and Sarasvati who are often depicted sitting upon this pious flower. As Lotus also stands as the symbol of divine beauty, it is used as a symbol to describe the beauty of Lord Vishnu by referring him as the ‘Lotus-Eyed One’. In the Hindu Mythology, the unfolding petals of Lotus signify the expansion of the soul. As the Lotus carries piousness despite growing from the mud, it is said to represent a caring spiritual promise. The Buddhists consider the Lotus Flower to be sacred and auspicious as the flower stands for faithfulness in their religion. The lotus plant has also been cited as a sacred flower extensively in the ancient Puranic and Vedic literature.
- Apart from India, Lotus is also the national flower of Vietnam.
- In Egypt the Lotus Flowers are considered to auspicious because they are regarded as the symbol of Sun God.
- Lotus seeds are medicinal in nature and are used for the treatment of kidney, spleen, and heart ailments. They are also considered beneficial in the treatment of Leucorrhea, palpitation and insomnia.
- Lotus seeds are also used as antidotes in mushroom poisoning.
- The seeds, leaves and tubers of the Lotus Flower are edible.
National Fruit of India
Mango, cultivated in India since times immemorial, is regarded as the National Fruit of the country. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India, except the hilly areas, but is mainly available in the summer season only.. There are more than 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colors, sizes, and shapes. The common names used in context of the fruit are, Mangot, Manga, and Mangou. The eact origin of the term ‘mango’ is not known. It is believed to have come from the Portuguese term ‘manga’, which is probably from Malayalam ‘manga’.
Mango finds a mentioned in the Indian history as well. In fact, the famous poet Kalidasa is known to have sung its praises. Apart from that, ancient Greek King Alexander the Great and Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang have been said to have savored its taste. Historical records also mention the instance of Mughal Kinf Akbar planting 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhibagh. Mangos, liked for their sweet juice and bright colors all around the world, are known to be rich in vitamin A, C, and D.
Mangoes are available in different sizes, ranging from 10 to 25 cm in length and 7 to 12 cm in width. In terms of weight, a single mango can be as heavy as 2.5 kg. The fruit come in a wide variety of colors, such as green, yellow, red, and even various combinations of all these colors. Mango has a flat, oblong seed in the center, which is covered by the sweet pulp. Covering the pulp is a thin layer of skin, which is peeled off before eating the fruit. When ripe, the unpeeled fruit gives off a distinct, resinous sweet smell.
A large number of mango varieties can be found in India. the most popular ones include ‘Alphonso’ (also called ‘Hapoos’), ‘Amrapali’, ‘Bangalora’, ‘Banganapalli’ (also known as ‘Benishaan’), ‘Bombay’, ‘Bombay Green’, ‘Chausa’, ‘Chinna Rasalu’, ‘Dashaheri’ (‘Daseri’), ‘Fazli’, ‘Fernandian’, ‘Gulabkhas’, ‘Himayath’ (a.k.a. ‘Imam Pasand’), ‘Himsagar’, ‘Jehangir’, ‘Kesar’, ‘Kishen Bhog’, ‘Lalbaug’, ‘Langda’ (‘Langra’), ‘Mallika’, ‘Mankurad’, ‘Mulgoa’, ‘Neelam’, ‘Pairi’, ‘Pedda Rasalu’, ‘Rajapuri’, ‘Safeda’, ‘Suvarnarekha’, ‘Totapuri’, ‘Vanraj’ and ‘Zardalu’.
Frost-free climate is best for the growth of Mangos. If temperatures drop below 40? F, even for a short period, the flowers and small fruits already grown on the tree can get killed. In other words, warm and dry weather is required for the cultivation of the fruit. This is it available in the summer season only. Mango can grow well in large containers and a greenhouse as well. Mango trees are shady in nature.. They grow very fast and can reach a height of as much as 65 ft. The life of mango trees is generally very long and some specimens are known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting.
National Song of India
Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji in Sanskrit, the song Vande Mataram was primarily conceived to serve as a motivation to the people in their freedom struggle. Though it was penned down in 1876, the first publication emerged in the year 1882 in ‘Anandamatha’ amidst doubts of a ban by the British Raj. Sharing an equal status with Jana-gana-mana (National Anthem of India), the song was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram served as a voice against British rule during the freedom struggle. Initially, people with patriotic fervor flocked the streets of Calcutta and other metropolis, shouting the slogan ‘Vande Mataram’ or ‘Hail to the Mother (land)!’
Terrified by the impending danger, British banned the expression of song and imprisoned freedom fighters, who disobeyed the command. Vande Mataram initially served as the National Anthem of India, but later Jana-gana-mana was adopted as the anthem of independent India. This was because the Muslim sect in India felt that the song was biased, as it depicted the nation as ‘Ma Durga’, a Hindu Goddess. Though Vande Mataram aptly illustrated the pre-independence national zeal and passion, it was espoused as the National Song of India. In the following lines, we have provided the wordings of the National Song of India and its English translation.
National Song Of India
sujalaaM suphalaaM malayaja shiitalaaM
SasyashyaamalaaM maataram ||
pullakusumita drumadala shobhiniiM
suhaasiniiM sumadhura bhaashhiNiiM
sukhadaaM varadaaM maataraM ||
Koti koti kantha kalakalaninaada karaale
koti koti bhujai.rdhR^itakharakaravaale
abalaa keno maa eto bale
bahubaladhaariNiiM namaami taariNiiM
ripudalavaariNiiM maataraM ||
Tumi vidyaa tumi dharma
tumi hR^idi tumi marma
tvaM hi praaNaaH shariire
Baahute tumi maa shakti
hR^idaye tumi maa bhakti
tomaara i pratimaa gaDi
mandire mandire ||
TvaM hi durgaa dashapraharaNadhaariNii
kamalaa kamaladala vihaariNii
vaaNii vidyaadaayinii namaami tvaaM
Namaami kamalaaM amalaaM atulaaM
SujalaaM suphalaaM maataraM ||
ShyaamalaaM saralaaM susmitaaM bhuushhitaaM
DharaNiiM bharaNiiM maataraM |”
Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow.
Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the sword flesh out in the seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Though who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free.
Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Though art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nervs the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine.
Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her
swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-toned,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleems,
Dark of hue O candid-fair
In thy soul, with jewelled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Lovilest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free!
National Tree of India
The national tree of India, banyan is a very huge structure, long and deep roots and branches symbolize the country’s unity. One can find banyan trees in throughout the nation. The huge sized tree acts as a shield, protects from hot sun. This is the reason why the tree is planted near homes, temples, villages and roadsides. In the rural parts of the country, banyan tree is considered as the focal point of the Panchayats and the gathering place for village councils and meetings. The tree is also considered sacred by the Hindus of India. With high medicinal value, banyan is often used as a herb to treat and cure many diseases. Given below is the description of banyan, the national tree of India.
Importance In The Indian Culture
The tradition of worshipping ‘sacred’ trees is prevalent among the people following Hinduism, since ages. Rig Veda and Atharva Veda stipulate that trees should be worshipped, for their inevitable role in human life. Banyan is considered one among the sacred trees. In the Hindu mythology, Lord Shiva is sometimes depicted sitting in silence, under the banyan tree, with the saints sitting at His feet. With its seemingly unending expansion, the banyan tree symbolizes eternal life. In Hindu culture, the tree is often called ‘kalpavriksha’, a Sanskrit word, which means ‘a divine tree that fulfills wishes’. Married Hindu women worship the banyan tree to lead a long and happy married life.
Banyan tree is characterized by a tangle of branches, roots and trunks. The tree is deeply rooted, which may spread across several acres. It is huge in size, thereby giving protection from hot sun. The tree bears fruits that look like figs. The fruits, which appear red in color when matured, are not edible. The dark green leaves of the tree are large and leathery. This is the reason why, the leaves are used as animal fodder. The flowers produced by the tree often attract wasps, for pollination. An old banyan tree can reach more than 656 feet in diameter and can be as tall as 98 feet. The rubber, produced from the sticky milk of banyan tree, is used for gardening.
- The name ‘banyan’ is derived from Banias, who rested under the trees to discuss their strategies regarding business.
- The widest tree in the world – the Great Banyan – is located in Kolkata. The tree is about 250 years old.
- Historical records say that Alexander the Great camped under a banyan tree that was large enough to provide shelter to his army of 7000 men.
- In many parts of the world, the wood and bark of the banyan tree are used for making paper.
- People even make use of the roots of the tree to make ropes, in order to secure wood bundles.
- The sap produced by banyan tree is often used to produce shellac, a strong adhesive. It can also be used to make surface-finisher.
- Women in Nepal crush the root of the banyan tree with a paste to make a herbal product, which is used by them as a hair and skin conditioner.
- In India and Pakistan, the twigs of banyan tree are sold as toothpicks in order to promote dental health.
- Banyan tree is well known for its medicinal uses. Its sap is a medicine for treating external skin inflammations and bruising, dysentery, toothaches and ulcers. Its bark and seeds are used to produce a herbal tonic that can cool the body. Diabetic patients are also treated by the tonic made from banyan tree.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly held its first sitting on the 9th December, 1946. It reassembled on the 14th August, 1947, as the sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. The proposed Constitution had been outlined by various committees of the Assembly like:
a) Union Constitution Committee
b) The Union Powers Committee
c) Committee on Fundamental Rights.
It was after a general discussion on the reports of these Committees that the Assembly appointed a Drafting Committee on the 29th August, 1947. The Drafting Committee, under the Chairmanship of Dr. Ambedkar, embodied the decision of the Assembly with alternative and additional proposals in the form of a ‘Draft Constitution of India which was published in February, 1948. The Constituent Assembly next met in November, 1948, to consider the provisions of the Draft, clause by clause. After several sessions the consideration of the clauses or second reading was completed by the 17th October, 1949. The Constituent Assembly again sat on the 14th November, 1949, for the third reading and finished it on the 26th November, 1949, on which date the Constitution received the signature of the President of the Assembly and was declared as passed. The provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional Parliament, temporary and transitional provisions, were given immediate effect, i.e., from November 26, 1949. The rest of the Constitution came into force on the 26th January, 1950, and this date is referred to in the Constitution as the Date of its Commencement.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Purpose of Having a Preamble:
The Preamble to our Constitution serves two purposes: –
A) It indicates the source from which the Constitution derives its authority;
B) It also states the objects, which the Constitution seeks to establish and promote.
The Preamble seeks to establish what Mahatma Gandhi described as The India of my Dreams, “…an India in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice; …an India in which all communities shall leave I perfect harmony. There can be no room in such an India for the curse of untouchability or the curse of Intoxicating drinks and drugs. Woman will enjoy as the same rights as man.”
Indian Government have provided six basic rights to every citizen India. So, as to provide a democratic environment for the peopel of India to live in. Here, we are describing each fundamental right in detail to help you in understanding our constitution.
The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarante that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.
In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in sucessfully abolishing the “untouchability”; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions.
Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that “No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.” Freedom of speech and expression, generally interpreted to include freedom of the press, can be limited “in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence”
Here we have defined the six fundamental rights as per the constitution of India:-
1. Right to Equality
2. Right to Particular Freedom
3. Cultural and Educational Rights
4. Right to Freedom of Religion
5. Right Against Exploitation and
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies
These Fundamental rights have been provided at the cost of some fundamental duties. These are considered as the duties that must be and should be performed by every citizen of India. These fundamental duties are defined as:
It shall be the duty of every citizens of India: –
To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures